Heart Attack, which is also called myocardial infarction is a phenomenon in which flow of blood is stopped to the heart muscle which results in the stoppage of contraction and relaxation of muscles. The reason behind this blockage of blood flow is usually a blood clot. When blood isn't able to reach desired parts of heart, tissues loses oxygen and finally dies.
pain and tightness in the chest.
fatigue followed by pain in neck and arms.
unusual anxiety with abnormality in heartbeat rate.
feeling of heartburn, fullness and indigestion.
Discomforting weakness and breathing problems followed by vomiting and dizziness.
These symptoms usually last for thirty minutes and patients must be treated as soon as possible. Sometimes many patients don't have any of these symptoms and still have heart attack. This is quite common with the patients having diabetes.
As this state is of emergency, patient's blocked artery is required to open as early as possible in order to lessen the amount of damage this attack can do to one's heart and as well as the functioning of other parts of the body. There is always a great risk of the damage of heart muscles. There are many tests which is done to diagnose a heart attack:
- ECG: Monitors heart rate, rhythm and also sees to the damage occurred.
- Echocardiography: checks the pumping of heart and looks for the areas who are pumping abnormally.
- Cardiac Catheterization: Helps the doctor to determine which procedure to be done on the patient by visualizing the blocked artery.
- Blood Tests: checks the level of cardiac enzymes which is the indicative of damaged muscles.
Surgery as an treatment:
Angioplasty ( Percutaneous Coronary Interventions)
Angioplasty ( Percutaneous Coronary Interventions): Special tubing with an attached deflated balloon is threaded up to the coronary arteries. The balloon is inflated to widen blocked areas where blood flow to the heart muscle has been reduced or cutoff. Often combined with implantation of a stent to help prop the artery open and decrease the chance of another blockage. Considered less invasive because the body is not cut open. This procedure can last from 30 minutes to several hours. A one night stay in hospital is highly recommendable.
Angioplasty(Laser) Similar to angioplasty except that the catheter has a laser tip that opens the blocked artery. Pulsating beams of light vaporize the plaque build up.
Artificial heart valve surgery
Abnormal heart valve is is replaced with a healthy one.Blood that flows between different chambers of your heart must flow through a heart valve. Blood that flows out of your heart into large arteries must also flow through a heart valve. These valves open up enough so that blood can flow through. They then close, keeping blood from flowing backward.
Atherectomy Atherectomy is a minimally invasive endovascular surgery technique for removing atherosclerosis from blood vessels within the body. It is an alternative to angioplasty for the treatment of peripheral artery disease, with no evidence of superiority to angioplasty.Similar to angioplasty except that the catheter has a rotating shaver on its tip to cut away plaque from the artery.
Bypass surgery Treats blocked heart arteries by creating new passages for blood to flow to your heart muscle. It works by taking arteries or veins from other parts of your body — called grafts — and using them to reroute the blood around the clogged artery. A patient may undergo one, two, three or more bypass grafts, depending on how many coronary arteries are blocked. Requires several days in the hospital.
Cardiomyoplasty An experimental procedure in which skeletal muscles are taken from a patient's back or abdomen. Then they're wrapped around an ailing heart. This added muscle, aided by ongoing stimulation from a device similar to a pacemaker, may boost the heart's pumping motion.
Minimally invasive heart surgery
Minimally invasive heart surgery An alternative to standard bypass surgery. Small incisions "ports" are made in the chest. Chest arteries or veins from your leg are attached to the heart to "bypass" the clogged coronary artery or arteries. The instruments are passed through the ports to perform the bypasses. The surgeon views these operations on video monitors rather than directly. In PACAB, the heart is stopped and blood is pumped through an oxygenator or "heart-lung" machine. MIDCAB is used to avoid the heart-lung machine. It's done while the heart is still beating. Requires several days in the hospital.
Heart Transplant Removes a diseased heart and replaces it with a healthy human heart when a heart is irreversibly damaged. Uses hearts from organ donation.A heart transplant, or a cardiac transplant, is a surgical transplant procedure performed on patients with end-stage heart failure or severe coronary artery disease when other medical or surgical treatments have failed. As of 2016, the most common procedure is to take a functioning heart from a recently deceased organ donor (cadaveric allograft) and implant it into the patient.
Radiofrequency Ablation A catheter with an electrode at its tip is guided through the veins to the heart muscle with real-time, moving X-rays (fluoroscopy) displayed on a video screen. The catheter is placed at the exact site inside the heart where cells give off the electrical signals that stimulate the abnormal heart rhythm. Then a mild, painless radiofrequency energy is transmitted to the pathway. This destroys carefully selected heart muscle cells in a very small area (about 1/5 of an inch).
Stent Procedure: A stent is a small mesh tube that's used to treat narrow or weak arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from your heart to other parts of your body. A stent is placed in an artery as part of a procedure called percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), also known as coronary angioplasty.
Transmyocardial Revascularization An incision is made on the left breast to expose the heart. Then, a laser is used to drill a series of holes from the outside of the heart into the heart's pumping chamber. In some patients TMR is combined with bypass surgery. In those cases an incision through the breastbone is used for the bypass. Usually requires a hospital stay.
This section provides only a brief outline of the treatment possibilities for Heart Surgery in India. Please Enquire with your medical reports and we will respond with a detailed medical opinion and cost estimate.